Motor Oils, Drivetrain Lubes And Hydraulic Oils Are|
Formulated To Carry Out Specific
In the early days of automotive lubrication, motor oil was just plain base oil. When
wax modifier was added to the base oil in the 1930s to address the problems created
by wax residue, the motor oil additive market was born. Today, motor oils contain a
wide variety of additives designed to improve their protection and performance
capabilities. Motor oil additives serve three essential functions: protecting metal
surfaces, expanding the lubricant's application range and extending the
Surface Protection Additives
Surface protection additives effectively address issues related to metal surfaces:
• Anti-wear agents protect against friction, wear, scoring and seizure.
• Corrosion and rust inhibitors protect internal metal parts against corrosion and rust.
• Detergents keep surfaces free of deposits.
• Dispersants prevent insoluble contaminants from agglomerating by keeping them
dispersed in the lubricant.
• Friction modifiers alter the oil's coefficient of friction.
A second group of additives serves to improve the lubricant's performance:
• Pour point depressants (used in petroleum lubricants) modify wax crystal
formation and enable oils to flow at lower temperatures.
• Seal swell agents help swell elastomeric seals by causing a chemical reaction
in the elastomer.
• Viscosity modifiers help reduce the rate of viscosity change when temperatures
rise or drop.
A third group of additives works to extend the service life of the lubricant:
• Anti-foaming agents reduce surface tension and speed the collapse of foam.
• Anti-oxidants reduce the oxidation rate by decomposing peroxides and terminating
• Metal deactivators reduce the catalytic effect of metals on the oxidation rate,
further slowing oxidation.
Combining the industry's premier synthetic technology with AMSOIL premium
additives, AMSOIL synthetic motor oils exceed the high performance demands of modern
engines, effectively withstanding the stress of higher horsepower, higher heat and
complicated emission control systems. AMSOIL synthetic motor oils consistently
outperform competitive conventional and synthetic motor oils for superior protection
and performance over extended drain intervals.
Although gear oil faces many of the same challenges as motor oil, it also has
additional responsibilities, such as carrying damaging wear debris away from contact
zones and muffling the sound of gear operation. Gear oils are placed under extreme
levels of pressure, often leading to boundary lubrication conditions (when a full
fluid film does not exist between surfaces). Differentials in cars and trucks feature a
ring-and-pinion hypoid gear set that can experience boundary lubrication, pressures
and sliding action that can wipe most of the lubricant off the gears. Extreme-pressure
(EP) additives are added to gear oil in order to provide additional protection within
this extreme environment.
Additional challenges faced by gear oils include rust and corrosion protection.
Because many of the components found in the drivetrain consist of ferrous material,
drivetrains are more susceptible to rust and corrosion than engines.
Gear sets found in the drivetrain can be noisy and may be subjected to shock-loading
conditions. The viscosity and extreme-pressure formulation of gear oil quiets gears
and dissipates shock loading.
The rotating motion of gear sets churns the gear lube, subjecting it to foaming and
significantly reduced load-carrying capacity. When gear teeth come into contact with
each other, trapped air bubbles compress and reduce the thickness of the separating
oil film, leading to direct metal-to-metal contact and increased wear levels. Only
the air is compressible; the oil is not. The gear oil must have the ability to
dissipate this entrapped air, ensuring a sufficient lubricating film exists to
protect the gears from contact wear.
Drivetrain Fluid Additives
Like motor oil additives, drivetrain fluid additives improve the protection and
performance capabilities of the base oil. Many of the challenges faced by drivetrain
fluids are met by the additives:
• Extreme-pressure and anti-wear agents minimize component wear in boundary
• Pour point depressants improve low-temperature performance.
• Rust and corrosion inhibitors protect internal components.
• Oxidation inhibitors reduce the deteriorating effects of heat, increasing the
lubricant's service life.
• Viscosity index improvers allow the lubricant to operate over a broader
• Anti-foam agents reduce the harmful effects of air trapped in a lubricant.
• Friction modifiers reduce friction.
AMSOIL Severe Gear® Synthetic Extreme Pressure (EP) Gear Lubes are specifically
engineered for maximum performance in severe-duty applications. Featuring an exclusive
blend of high viscosity, shear-stable synthetic base oils and an extra treatment of
high-performance additives, Severe Gear maintains its viscosity for long-lasting
protection against metal-to-metal contact. The proprietary AMSOIL additives form an
iron-sulfide barrier coating on gear surfaces, providing the ultimate line of defense
against wear, pitting and scoring.
AMSOIL Synthetic Universal Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATF) is engineered to exceed
the performance requirements of domestic and foreign automatic transmission fluids,
offering smooth shifting, long transmission life and excellent lubricating protection
and performance in temperature extremes.
AMSOIL Synthetic Fuel Efficient Automatic Transmission Fluid (ATL) is engineered to
exceed the requirements of GM, Ford and Toyota where low viscosity oil is required,
providing outstanding protection and performance over extended drain intervals, even
in severe operating conditions.
Hydraulic oil not only provides the medium for hydraulic power, it is also responsible
for lubricating hydraulic components, cooling the system by transferring heat and
minimizing wear, friction, deposits, rust and corrosion.
Standard hydraulic fluids are composed of about 99 percent base oil and 1 percent
additives. Although water was used as the original hydraulic fluid, it was replaced
by mineral oil base stocks in the 1920s due to their lubricating properties and higher
boiling points. Modern hydraulic fl uids are composed of either mineral, synthetic or
natural (vegetable) oil base stocks, as well as a wide range of additives such as
antioxidants, anti-wear agents, demulsifiers, detergents, dispersants, foam
inhibitors, pour point depressants, metal deactivators, rust inhibitors and viscosity
modifiers. A variety of different additive packages are used in different hydraulic
fluids, and selecting the right package is critical to equipment performance and
AMSOIL Synthetic Anti-Wear Hydraulic Oils (AWF, AWG, AWH, AWI, AWJ) are shear-stable,
long-life lubricants formulated with premium synthetic base oils and additive systems
that inhibit oxidation, rust and foam. Synthetic Anti-Wear Hydraulic Oils also contain
a very effective zinc-based anti-wear/antioxidant additive that prevents wear in
high-speed, high-pressure vane and gear pumps while meeting the lubrication
requirements of axial piston pumps with bronze-on-steel metallurgy. Synthetic
Anti-Wear Hydraulic Oils reduce maintenance costs by extending drain intervals and
reducing labor associated with repairs, downtime and change outs.
AMSOIL Synthetic Biodegradable Hydraulic Oil (TBI) is designed to biodegrade to its
natural state when subjected to sunlight, water and microbial activity. Because it is
formulated with ashless additives that do not contain heavy metals, it has a very low
toxicity level. TBI is based on high-quality, synthetic oil chemistry that outperforms
vegetable oil-type, biodegradable hydraulic oils.